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Happy Holidays and all the best in the New Year from the Discovery® team!
Happy Holidays and all the best in the New Year from the Discovery® team!
Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super family, playing a role in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. ERK1/2 are protein-Ser/Thr kinases that participate in the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade; with 83% shared amino acid identity, ERK1 (44 kDa) and ERK2 (42 kDa) are expressed in almost all tissues and have higher homology in their core regions. Extracellular stimuli such as growth factors, mitogens, cytokines, hormones, and oxidative or heat stress can trigger signal transduction pathways that lead to ERK1/2 activation. For example, human MEK1/2 phosphorylates the effector MAPKs ERK1/2 on Tyr204/187 and Thr202/185 in the TEY sequence to activate its enzymatic function.
When activated, ERK1/2 preferentially phosphorylate substrates containing the Ser/Thr-Pro motif, with the optimal consensus sequence identified as Pro-Xxx-Ser/Thr-Pro. The ERK1/2 proline-directed kinases phosphorylate a multitude of cytoplasmic and nuclear protein substrates including signaling effectors, protein kinases, receptors and cytoskeletal proteins. In addition to this, ERK1/2 also phosphorylate an array of proteins involved in various processes including cell adhesion, cell cycle progression, proliferation, migration, differentiation, cell survival and metabolism. ERK1/2 can also translocate into the nucleus and phosphorylate many transcription factors. The co-ordinated variations of ERK1/2 signalling from its duration, magnitude, subcellular localization and protein interactions can determine the final outcome of cellular fate. Due to the varied and complex nature of ERK1/2 action, combined with its role in several different signalling transduction pathways, these extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2) maintain a vital function in cell proliferation and apoptosis.
Antibodies available to purchase via DISCOVERY Antibodies
Anti-ERK 1/2 Antibody
Alexa Fluor® 488 Anti-ERK1/2 antibody
We also stock the ERK1 antigen peptide on our DISCOVERY Antibodies site:
ERK 1 peptide
Cyclin D1 is a key regulator of cell proliferation as it links the extracellular signaling environment to cell cycle progression. Cyclin D1 accumulation is the rate-limiting step for cell cycle entry and the transition from G1 to S phase. The levels of cyclin D1 are elevated in G1 phase, where it interacts with the serine-threonine protein kinases, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) CDK4 and/or CDK6 to activate its catalytic activity. Active Cyclin D1/CDK complexes then phosphorylates the retinoblastoma protein (Rb).
Rb inhibits cell cycle progression through its ability to repress E2F transcription factors activity, which is involved in the regulation of genes required for DNA replication and G2/M progression. Phosphorylation of RB (pRb) promotes the release of E2F and subsequently promotes cell cycle progression. Furthermore, cyclin D1 plays a role in maintaining the integrity of the G1/S checkpoint. Cyclin D1 associates with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a component of the DNA replication and repair machinery. During S phase, cyclin D1 down-regulation is necessary for PCNA translocation, DNA repair and initiation of DNA replication.
Cyclin D1 has been shown to associate with a number of transcription factors in a CDK independent manner to modulate transcription and epigenetic changes. Cyclin D1 contains an LxxLL motif (251-255) that facilitates coactivator recruitment to mediate transcriptional activation. In addition, cyclin D1 contains a repressor domain (142-253) within its central region, which facilitates the interactions with co-repressors to negatively regulate transcription. The levels of cyclin D1 are determined by the rate of expression, protein stability, localization, associations and degradation.
The diverse roles of cyclin D1 are dependent on its protein level. The various biological processes that cyclin D1 has been implicated in include cell migration, mitochondrial metabolism, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Given the pivotal role of cyclin D1 in promoting cell proliferation, aberrant cyclin D1 expression and activity frequently occurs in human cancers. The over-expression of cyclin D1 is predominantly associated with tumorigenesis and metastases.
Understanding the multifaceted role of cyclin D1 and its dysregulation may provide a better understanding of its involvement in the development and progression of cancer.
Anti-Cyclin D1 antibody
Cyclin D1 peptide
An Introduction to Phosphorylation Site Specific Antibodies
Protein phosphorylation is a prevalent, versatile and widely studied reversible Post Translational Modification (PTM) and occurs principally on three amino acids: serine, threonine or tyrosine. It is mediated by kinases and phosphatases and plays a critical role in the regulation of many cellular processes including cell cycle, signal transduction pathways and apoptosis.
Phosphorylation site-specific antibodies which can discriminate between the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms have emerged as reliable tools to enable quantitative and qualitative detection of phosphorylated proteins and can be used for Western blotting, Immunohistochemistry and Immunoprecipitation, ELISA analysis and flow cytometry.
Anti-phosphorylated CDK (pY15) Antibody
Cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays an essential role in coordinating cell cycle. Monomeric CDK2 is inactive, and requires interaction with cyclins for functional activation. The CDK2/Cyclin E complexes are involved in controlling the G1/S transition and initiation of DNA synthesis. Whereas, the CDK2/Cyclin A complexes are involved in the control of progression through S phase and mitosis. The CDK2 is the catalytic subunit of the heterodimeric complexes.
The CDK2 kinase activity is tightly regulated and depends on the phosphorylation state at 2 major phosphorylation sites, Thr14/Tyr15 (T14/Y15) and Thr160 (T160). CDK2 activation occurs when CDK2 is dephosphorylated at the inhibitory site T14/Y15 and phosphorylated at activating site T160.
CDK2 contains an N-terminal lobe structure and a C-terminal lobe structure which sandwich the active site. The N-terminal lobe contains a glycine-rich inhibitory element (G-loop) and a unique major helix (C-helix). T14/Y15 residues are located in the flexible G-loop that forms the roof of the ATP-binding site and is important for ATP interaction. Structural studies of pY15/pT160 CDK2/Cyclin/ATP complex show that phosphorylation at Y15 perturbs protein substrate binding affinity due to steric hindrance. This affects correct ATP alignment and binding at the catalytic site.
Wee1 and Myt1 kinases phosphorylate CDK2 at Y15 and inhibit its activity by preventing ATP binding. The phosphorylation at Y15 of CDK2 is independent of cyclin interaction and precedes the activating CDK2 T160 phosphorylation by CDK-activating kinase complex (CAK), as the CDK2 T160 phosphorylation is dependent on cyclin binding. Phosphorylation at CDK2 T14/Y15 has been shown to stabilize Cyclin E and prevent its degradation.
The subsequent dephosphorylation of CDK2 at T14/Y15 by the cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) phosphatase promotes CDK2 activation and is the rate-limiting step of the CDK2/Cyclin complex activation process. The CDK2 inhibitory phosphorylation plays an important role during replication stress signaling and in maintaining genome integrity.
Antibodies to purchase via DISCOVERY Antibodies
Peptide and Antibody bundles to purchase via DISCOVERY Antibodies
Featuring: Anti-CDK2 antibody and CDK2 peptide
Featuring: Anti-phosphorylated CDK2 (pY15) antibody, Phosphorylated CDK2 (pY15) peptide and CDK2 peptide